Schwesterbeziehungen in den Grimm‘schen Märchen (German Edition)

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Natural phil- osophers, Thales and Auaxagoras, who on such an occasion could not be lacking, get into a violent dispute concerning the phe- nomenon, the one upholding the Neptunistic and the other the Plutonic theory. Auaxagoras predicts a shower of meteors which fall immediately thereafter from the moon. For that he is praised by the crowd as a demigod while his opponent is forced to retreat to the sea.

After the shower of meteors and the retreat of Thales, Pygmies come swarming forth from the chasms of the new mountain and avail themselves of the upper arms and shoulders of the giant as a play and dancing ground,, while myriads of Cranes, screaming, circle about his head and his hair, as if the latter were impenetrable forests, and announce an enjoyable contest before the close of the general festival.

Meanwhile Mephisto has made the acquaintance of Enyo. Though her grand homeliness almost causes him to lose his composure and become insulting, he restrains himself, tries to gain her influence on account of her high ancestors and makes a treaty with her, the open conditions of which are not of much consequence, while the secret ones are all the more important. The transformation is not mentioned as such.

A pedagogical conversation with this 'Urhofmeister' is, though not interrupted, at least disturbed by the Lamiae who keep passing between Faust and Chiron and would have led Faust astray, if he had not received 'das hochste Gebild der Schonheit' in his mind. Chiron meanwhile explains the max- ims according to which he has instructed the Argonauts and Achilles, but is sorry to say that they lived and acted afterward just as if they had not been educated. When he hears of Faust's intention, he is glad to meet once more a man who desires the impossible, offers him his assistance, carries him through all the fords and sands of Peneus, shows him where Per- seus caught his breath on his flight from the Romans, and takes him to the foot of Mount Olympus.

There they meet a long pro- cession of Sibyls, many more than twelve. Chiron describes them as they pass by and commends his charge to Manto, the thoughtful and kindly daughter of Tiresias. The latter reveals to Faust that the way to Orcus is just about to open, and when it does open they begin the descent.

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On their path they meet the head of Gorgo and, if Manto had not thrown her veil over Faust, neither a trace of his body nor of his soul would ever have been found again in the uni- verse. They arrive at the crowded court of Proserpina, by whom Faust is welcomed as another Orpheus though his request is found a trifle singular. Manto makes a speech in which she asks for Helena's release on the strength of the precedents in the cases of Protesilaus, Alceste, Eurydice and Helena herself.

The queen is moved to tears and gives her consent. The three judges to whom they are directed find that the other time Helena had been allowed to return to Hades on condition that she be limited to the island of Leuce. Now she is to return to Sparta only and to appear there truly alive, while it is left to her suitor to win her favor.

Here the Helena drama begins. In this outline the four travelers wander through the Classi- 6 Evolution of the Walpurgis-Night and the Scene in Hades. Their adventures predominate over the description of the characters and events of the Walpurgis-Night proper at the ratio of two to one. The action of Seismos, now still called by the mythological name of Hnceladus, takes place and is duly commented upon by the philosophers, but the possibility of a living counterpart, which was contained in Hoinunculus, had not yet been discovered by the poet, nor did Galatea offset the Phorkyads.

All events are merely strung together and no attempt at real dramatic compo- sition has yet been made because a leading idea to bind up the whole is still lacking. The actors of the land are partly the same as in the final form, but their elemental natures or inter- ests have not yet been made prominent and only the Pygmies and Cranes are connected with Seismos. The Sirens are so far the only representatives of the sea.


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The entrance of any of the great gods, except Proserpina, or of any of the heroes was con- templated now just as little as afterward. A month later, in January, , the speech before Proserpina, probably by a lapse of memory on the part of Goethe or Eckermann attributed to Faust instead of Manto, is mentioned once more. After that there is no further information concerning the poet's occupa- tion with the work until Lines must have been composed on or after August 29? That is, leaving out of account the last item, because it is on the very threshold of the year , some desultory work on the scene with the Sphinxes, Griffins, Ants and Ari- maspeans, where Mephistopheles had taken the place of Faust, had been done previous to the last days of the year That Goethe's plans of the Classical Walpurgis-Night had in the mean time undergone far greater changes may, however, be A.

Fanst was now so deeply affected with his longing for Helena that he had to be carried to Thessaly in order to be restored to consciousness. Hence he could no longer be employed as a vehicle for the exposition and, as we have seen above, Mephis- topheles had taken that place.

Mephistopheles went to Thes- saly to satisfy his amorousness with the Lamiae. Hence these had to be transferred from Faust to him. Homunculus had no longer a body but started out to find one. Hence the adventures with Erichthonius and Erichtho and with the ghosts of the Pompejans and Cesareans had to be abandoned and the sea scene added.

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Wagner had lost his purpose and hence was compelled to stay at home. Thus the great outlines of the Classical Walpurgis-Night must have been fixed before, January 1, or thereabouts, the continuous work on it was begun. January 17 Goethe reads to Eckermann the scene of Mephis- topheles with the Griffins and Sphinxes, parts of which had been written so long ago. January 20 he reads to him the scene 1 wo Faust nach der Helena fragt und der Berg entsteht,' the latter probably being a fragment, part of which at least had been composed during the last days of the preceding year.

January 24 work has been commenced on the scene with Chiron which at that time was not intended to contain all it does now, because even in the revised form of the scheme of February 6, ' Chiron iiber Manto sprechend Fausten bey ihr einfuhrend. Uberein- kunft ' still follows after the sea scene ; he hopes to be done ' in ein paar Monaten. Auch gehe der Gegenstand mehr ausein- ander als er gedacht.

March 1 Eckermann expresses his astonishment at the size to which the manuscript had grown within the few weeks, that is about since January March 7 Goethe has been obliged to lay aside his Walpurgis-Night because of other pressing work. As the diary informs us, this time was utilized by the copyist for the ' Hauptmunclum.

The same conclusion is reached from the fact that he then was still in hopes of finishing the whole Walpurgis-Night that includes at that time, as we shall see hereafter, the scene in Hades before Eckermann left for Italy, that is by the middle of April. In spite of this the work comes to a sudden standstill no more than one week later, for after March 28 the entries in the diary concerning work on Faust cease.

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Only after a lapse of two months and a half the Walpurgis-Night is taken up again and apparently finished June 17 or 18, or very shortly afterward. In order to discover the cause of this delay we must try to determine the exact state of the work during the period from March 28 to June In the first place the notes given above show that the work on the sea scene had been commenced, while the existence of lines , , , on the back of a play bill of June 12, , prove that it had not yet been completed.

In the second place the scheme of February 6, as was mentioned above, gives part of the scene of Faust with Chiron after the sea scene which makes it probable that that part had not been finished either. The fact that lines A. Hence apparently part of the close of the sea scene, part of the scene of Faust with Chiron and Manto and the scene in Hades were lacking at the time.

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A similar though not quite so definite a conclusion may be reached by a careful examination of Eckermann's letter to Goethe of September 14, , in which he says : ' Zu meiner grossen Freude habe ich aus einem Hirer letzten Briefe in Genua ersehen, dass die Liicken und das Ende der ' Classischen Walpurgisnacht ' gliicklich erobert worden.

Die drei ersten Acte waxen also vollkommen fertig, die ' Helena ' verbunden, und deinnach das Schwierigste gethan. Thence they were forwarded to Genoa where Eckermann and Goethe's son were staying at the time, who left there in the early morning of July The only notice concerning the Walpurgis-Night is in the letter of June 25 and reads : ' Wenn Eckermann, bey soviel Lockungen und Verfiihrungen, noch beysammen und ein riickwarts blickender Mensch geblieben ist, so sag ihm : Die Walpurgisnacht sey vollig abgeschlossen, und wegen des fernerhin und weiter Nothigen sey die beste Hoffuung.

This inference of his own again can only be based on his knowledge of the manuscript of the Walpurgis- Night which Goethe let him have April 14, and which he dis- cussed with him on the 18th, four days before his departure. Hence the Walpurgis-Night had ' Liicken ' and lacked the ' Ende ' at that time. Now good fortune will have it that the Goethe and Schiller archives actually possess a manuscript which offers the Wal- io Evolution of the Walpurgis-Night and the Scene in Hades.

It bears on its ' Umschlag ' in Goethe's own handwriting the title : ' Classische Walpurgisnacht erstes Mundum. In the former case it would contain at least all the continuous work down to March 13, and possibly also the not very large amount done during the next two weeks, in the latter it would comprise everything down to March This manuscript has Liicken ' and lacks the 1 Ende' though most of those ' Liicken ' were rather gaps on the paper than in the composition and hence never filled.

It is stitched together and hence was fit to be given out of the house. It is not only stitched together but it was also never completed though there are several empty pages at the close. Hence it represents the state of the work when it had come to a stand- still and reached a temporary conclusion. For all these reasons it may not only be maintained that this manuscript is the iden- tical one which Eckermann examined the ' zweyte Reinschrift ' does not seem to have been put together till February of the following year , but also that it represents the state of the Classical Walpurgis-Night between March 28 and June 12, barring some separate groups of lines and possibly a few addi- tions made by Goethe during that period which did not seem to him as of enough importance to chronicle in his diary.

According to the ' Erstes Mundum ' the state of the Classical Walpurgis-Night from April to June was, therefore, as follows : The first scene was completed. The scene with Chiron ended with Chiron's account of Hercules, the relation of the Argo- nauts being put in parentheses.

The following scene lacked only the twenty lines of the monologue of Mephistopheles, which precedes the entrance of the Lamiae, since lines and which are now not counted as part of the manuscript belonged to it formerly. The sea scene lacks the A. The important matters which had not yet been finished therefore were : the second part of the scene with Chiron including Manto's part, the procession of Galatea with the wonder of Homunculus, and the scene in Hades. That the scene in Hades was still being seriously con- templated at the time when the close of the scheme of February 6 was revised is proved by the very fact of that revision.

If Goethe had not actually thought of writing the scene, he would not have gone to the trouble of altering its plan. That it was still intended early in March, when the space for the remainder of the scene with Chiron was left, appears from the smallness of that space which suffices at most for lines.