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Se presentan "alternativas" posibles a la familia calificada como "tradicional". Es una comunidad de vida y de amor conyugal. En una fidelidad sin reservas, el hombre y la mujer se entregan el uno al otro y se aman con un amor abierto a la vida. Se funda en una verdad que ella no produce, porque fue querida directamente por Dios. Ef 5, El servicio a la vida. El don de la persona a la persona brota y se realiza en el don de la vida al hijo. Asumir la responsabilidad de la venida al mundo de un nuevo ser humano significa comprometerse a educarlo.

La Familiaris consortio cf. Con sus relaciones de hermanos y hermanas se inician del mejor modo posible en la vida social. Representa la primera comunidad humana y humaniza la sociedad. Tiene derechos y deberes. Se encuentran por doquier proyectos en debate al respecto, aunque no siempre con vistas a una mejora. Ha asumido su responsabilidad frente a la humanidad. Familiaris consortio, La pastoral familiar.

Esta pastoral se ha desarrollado mucho.

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Atestiguan con entusiasmo la buena nueva que los impulsa. Los criterios que da al respecto la Familiaris consortio son claros y deben respetarse. Pero los divorciados que se han vuelto a casar por lo civil no deben sentirse fuera de la Iglesia, excluidos. Family infractions, including adulterous concubinage, accounted for ever-increasing proportions of the royal courts' criminal dockets. Mirow , , Latin American Law , 57 — For a detailed look at the legal treatment of marriage in one corner of Spain's American empire, see Kluger , Viviana , Escenas de la vida conyugal: los conflicts matrimoniales en la sociedad virreinal rioplatense Buenos Aires : Editorial Quorum , , — After Guatemala achieved independence in the s, liberals hoped to modernize the fledgling republic by doing away with colonial law.

They proposed a new system of law based principally on legal codes that U.


The new codes would have reduced the Catholic Church's legal influence over marriage and other facets of Guatemalan life. Conservatives were not pleased. They wrested power away from liberals in an coup, re-established Catholicism as the state religion, revoked liberal legal reforms, and adopted a modified form of the old colonial law. Note that, in the absence of a strong central government, local authorities took the lead in implementing marriage law during the early decades of Central American independence from Spain.

The secularization of family law was something of a world-wide trend in the second half of the nineteenth century. See Hunefeldt , , Liberalism in the Bedroom , For more on secularization and family law elsewhere in Latin America in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, see Mirow , , Latin American Law , — Salvatore , Ricardo D. Note that liberal-era adultery reforms were even more blatantly sexist in some other Latin American nations.

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Between oct. Among the criminal cases observed in the docket books between April and April , three were for adultery and none was for concubinage. Twelve adultery prosecutions and no concubinage prosecutions appeared in a case sample taken between 2 July and 30 Dec. The final sample in this series extends from 3 Aug. In total, among 2, criminal cases counted, twenty-four about 1 percent were for adultery and one about. Las Siete Partidas , vol.

Scott , Samuel Parsons , ed. Burns , Robert I. Spanish law divided illegitimate children into seven categories.

¿Cómo mantener la familia unida? - Itiel Arroyo

Inheritance restrictions were particularly stiff for children whose parents were not only unmarried to each other, but legally barred from marrying each other. Children of adulterous concubinage fell into this severely disadvantaged category. Decreto Guvernativo No. See also Art. See the Constitution of , Art. Judicial declarations of paternity were possible, though rare. Gloria's birth certificate contains no record of an official name change.

Restaurando Familias

Revealingly, Gloria and Julio disagreed about what Gloria's true name was. Gloria's case file refers to her as Peralta Valderrama. Many Latin American states started offering free midwifery in the s, due to the combined effects of eugenics, feminism, and state growth. These numbers come from a survey of births in Quetzaltenango in January , registro de Nacimientos, tomo 77, pp. Among two hundred total births surveyed, ninety-seven took place in a private home, ninety-three took place in the hospital General del occidente, and ten took place in private facilities.

Among seventy-five paternally unrecognized children born in Quetzaltenango during January and February , sixty 80 percent were born in the General hospital, while only fifteen 20 percent were born at home. Babies born to single mothers with no father listed represented about 20 percent of all children born at this time. Pedro Castillo[? Studies of this sort are rarer than they should be.

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As Ann Varley has noted, scholars of gender and family history in Latin America are quick to notice legislation but slow to investigate its courtroom application. Nonetheless, I was able to access docket books that fell into roughly ten-year intervals: oct. I separated the crimes listed in these docket books into several categories: property crimes e. Family crimes included: adultery, concubinage, acting against the security of the family, denial of economic support, infanticide, parricide, abandonment of minor children, subtraction of minor children, abandonment of the household, and illegal marriage.

I then measured the trends over time that these numbers revealed. Full statistical data are in my possession and are available upon request. The sample totaled criminal cases, of which forty-nine were obviously family-related. The sample totaled criminal cases, of which seventynine were obviously family-related. For evidence that male-initiated accusations of adultery were similarly prevalent in the ecclesiastical courts of nineteenth-century Peru, see Hunefeldt , , Liberalism in the Bedroom , , Guatemala did adopt a new Criminal Code in , but its adultery provisions Arts.

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Zur believes that domestic violence against women increased in Guatemala in the second half of the twentieth century. See Zur , , Violent Memories , Gutmann , , The Meanings of Macho , Understandably, given the research complications involved in the topic, neither scholar backs these suspicions with hard data. Scott , and Burns , , Las Siete Partidas , vol. Those who could prove penury could escape punishment. The code also specified that this sentence would increase by a third if the accused employed fraudulent means in order to avoid his or her family-support obligations.

Men in these years appeared as criminal defendants in cases involving infanticide, parricide, adultery, abandonment of the home, concubinage, and subtraction of minors. In response to this concern, Guatemala's Constitution became the nation's first to declare formally that the government had an obligation to protect the family. Some observers identified the criminal law as one area in which the state could do more to aid Guatemalan families. Preventing family disintegration today would prevent social problems tomorrow.

In this spirit, Guatemala, in , made it a crime to deny family members the economic support that the civil law demanded. Alburez , , El derecho y los tribunales privativos de familia , 46 — The new courts' commitment to encouraging estranged partners to reconcile appears in Art. Peralta v.

Guy , Donna J. If the child's life was lost or threatened as a result of the abandonment, the sentence increased substantially. For more on the code of masculine honor and social class, see Hunefeldt , , Liberalism in the Bedroom , 7. For more on the code of honor as it relates to the male response to unfaithful women, see Piccato , Pablo , City of Suspects: Crime in Mexico City, Durham : Duke University Press , , For discussion of these themes in a later historical era, see Gutmann , , The Meanings of Macho.

Instancia, 5 oct. The testimony of a local church pastor may well have been decisive. Gloria claimed that this man, on the afternoon of August 17, had witnessed Gloria and Julio's alleged agreement to transfer custody of the children from mother to father.

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The pastor indeed admitted knowing Gloria and Julio and being aware of their domestic difficulties. It worked, the pastor thought. Gloria agreed to move back home within twenty-four hours. Unfortunately for Gloria, the pastor claimed to be unaware of any arrangement regarding an exchange of child custody, since he believed that the couple was reuniting. A week later, the pastor heard that Gloria had left town and abandoned her two children.

This testimony hurt Gloria's chances. The reconciliation session that the pastor organized demonstrates that the legal system was not alone in seeking to buttress relationships of adulterous concubinage. Guatemalan Constitutional Court, expediente , decision of mar. Decreto , reforma al Art. Julia's marriage is noted in the margins of her birth certificate, available in the registro de Nacimientos, tomo 77, p. The statement that Gloria approved of her daughter's wedding is based on Guatemalan marriage law, which required Gloria to authorize her daughter's wedding, since Julia was not yet eighteen years of age.

Parents of children under eighteen years of age had to give their consent before their children could wed. Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection. This data will be updated every 24 hours.