A Swan-Song Betrayed (Bello)

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Your Security 6. Your Options 7. They were met with well-organised firing from Morgan's main force of troops. When the party came into view at the end of the ravine, they were charged by the Spanish cavalry, but organised fire destroyed the cavalry and the party attacked the flank of the main Spanish force. Panama's governor had sworn to burn down the city if his troops lost to the privateers, and he had placed barrels of gunpowder around the largely wooden buildings. These were detonated by the captain of artillery after Morgan's victory; the resultant fires lasted until the following day.

Morgan's second-in-command, Captain Edward Collier , supervised the torture of some of the city's residents; Morgan's fleet surgeon, Richard Browne, later wrote that at Panama, Morgan "was noble enough to the vanquished enemy". The value of treasure Morgan collected during his expedition is disputed. Talty writes that the figures range from , to , pesos, and that owing to the large army Morgan assembled, the prize-per-man was relatively low, causing discontent. The following month he made his official report to the governing Council of Jamaica, and received their formal thanks and congratulations.

The historian Violet Barbour considers it probable that one of the Spanish conditions was the removal of Modyford from the Governorship. Modyford was arrested and sent to England by Sir Thomas Lynch , his recent replacement. The destruction of Panama so soon after the signing of the treaty led to what Allen describes as "a crisis in international affairs" between England and Spain.

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In April the privateer admiral was returned to London where, Barbour writes, he was "handsomely lionized Morgan probably remained at liberty throughout his time in London, and the political mood changed in his favour. Arlington asked him to write a memorandum for the king on how to improve Jamaica's defences. Morgan would act as his deputy. They were accompanied by Modyford, released from the Tower of London without charge and made the Chief Justice of Jamaica.

Although Morgan had been ordered to eradicate piracy from Jamaican waters, [] he continued his friendly relations with many privateer captains, and invested in some of their ships. Zahedieh estimates that there were 1, privateers operating in the Caribbean at the time, and Port Royal was their preferred destination. These had a welcome in the city if Morgan received the dues owed to him. In July Carbery called for a hearing against Morgan in front of the Assembly of Jamaica, accusing him of collaborating with the French to attack Spanish interests.

Morgan admitted he had met the French officials, but indicated that this was diplomatic relations, rather than anything duplicitous. In the summer of the Lords of Trade said they had yet to come to a decision on the matter and in early the king and the Privy Council recalled Carbery from Jamaica, leaving Morgan as governor for three months.

By the late s France became an increasing threat in the Caribbean, and Morgan took control of the defence of Port Royal. In the s and s, in his capacity as an owner of a large slave plantation, Morgan led three campaigns against the Jamaican Maroons of Juan de Serras. Morgan achieved some success against the Maroons, who withdrew further into the Blue Mountains , where they were able to stay out of the reach of Morgan and his forces. As Morgan and his allies on the Assembly of Jamaica continued to deal with privateers and pirates, criticism of their action in London was fomented by two former governors of Jamaica, Carbery and Lynch.

In Lynch died, and was temporarily replaced as governor by his friend, the lieutenant-general, Hender Molesworth. Morgan took steps to discredit the book and successfully brought a libel suit against the book's publishers William Crooke and Thomas Malthus.

In his affidavit he stated that he had "against evil deeds, piracies and robberies the greatest abhorrence and distrust", and that "for the kind of men called buccaneers", he "always had and still has hatred". He dismissed Molesworth and gave Morgan an unofficial role as advisor. Sloane described his patient as. He complained to me of want of appetite for victuals, he had a kicking Morgan died on 25 August ; Albemarle ordered a state funeral , and laid Morgan's body at King's House for the public to pay respects. An amnesty was declared so that pirates and privateers could pay their respects without fear of arrest.

He was buried at Palisadoes cemetery, Port Royal, followed by a gun salute from the ships moored in the harbour. On 7 June an earthquake struck Port Royal. About two-thirds of the town, amounting to 33 acres 13 ha , sank into Kingston harbour immediately after the main shock. Palisadoes cemetery, including Morgan's grave, was one of the parts of the city to fall into the sea; his body has never been subsequently located. His experience explains "why he painted such a black picture of Morgan and portrayed him as a cruel and unscrupulous villain", [] which subsequently affected historians' view of Morgan.

He cites the examples of the historians whose biographies were so flawed they wrote that Morgan either died in London, prison or the Tower of London. Exquemelin wrote that Morgan's men undertook widespread torture in several of the towns they captured.

According to Stephen Snelders, in his history of piracy, the Spanish reports of Morgan's raids do not refer to torture being practiced on the residents of Porto Bello or Gibraltar — although there are reliable reports that it was carried out in Panama. In doing so, he was acting as a reserve naval force for the English government in the defence of Jamaica. In the Seagram Company started manufacturing the Captain Morgan brand of rum , named after the privateer. In the Captain Morgan brand was sold to Diageo , the multinational drinks company based in London. The economist Peter Leeson believes that pirates and privateers were generally shrewd businessmen, far removed from the modern, romanticised view of them as murderous tyrants.

Galvin and the historian Kris Lane separately see Morgan as obtaining wealth to become a member of the landed gentry ; [] [] Galvin wrote that Morgan showed "social mobility through self-interested acts of outlawry, political wiles, and business acumen". He was a planner, a brilliant military strategist and intensely loyal to the king, to England and to Jamaica.